Important Terms and Phrases:

Forty Acres and a MuleThe Freedmen Bureau policy of settling formerly enslaved persons on abandoned/confiscated lands and giving the families animals to help them work it. This policy was only enacted in the South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida Lowcountry.

BugleA simple, brass instrument typically used to sound military signals.

CollageAn art technique of composing various materials not usually associated with each other by pasting them on a single surface

CongressA formal meeting of lawmakers

EmancipationThe act of freeing enslaved persons

FreedmenThe newly freed populations after the Civil War

ManumissionThe release of someone from servitude or slavery; usually done on an individual level

ReconstructionThe period between 1865 and 1877 that focused on the rebuilding of a country torn apart by the Civil War

Republican PartyThe Republican Party was established in Jackson, Mississippi in 1854 to thwart the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which sought to spread of slavery throughout the region. Also known as the Grand Old Party or GOP, it would win Abraham Lincoln in the presidential election of 1860. The Republican Party, led by Lincoln would secure the abolition of slavery in 1863. The party was largely comprised of Northern white people, including Christians and businessmen, and free Black people.

ScrapbookAn album in which personally important items are mounted and documented

Slaverya condition in which people are the property of someone else and are forced to work without pay or rights

Archives—A place where records and historical documents are kept and preserved

Artifact—A human-made object, usually of the past, that reflects a particular culture

Diaspora—A group that has been dispersed outside of its traditional homeland, especially involuntarily

Era—A period of time with a distinctive character, events, etc.; may have a beginning and ending dates

Genealogy—A record or account of someone’s ancestors and descendants

Griot—A member of a hereditary caste among many West African cultures who keeps the oral histories of the community and to entertain with stories, poems, songs, dances, etc.

Heirloom—A family possession passed down throughout generations

Material Culture—A collection of physical objects/artifacts used by a society

Memorabilia—Items worthy of remembrance; souvenirs

Migration—The act of moving from one place to another, usually over long distances

Oral History—Information of historical or social importance usually recorded from a person’s first-hand account

Primary Source—A resource from which information is gathered from a firsthand account.

Research—A careful, organized inquiry or investigation into a topic in order to discover or revise facts and theories

Secondary Source—A resource from which information is not gathered from a firsthand account, usual interpretations of events studied through research.

Amendment—A change made to something, whether it be a legal document or a statutory document. Amendments are most commonly known for being added to the United States Constitution to change previously held laws or policies.

Anthem—An uplifting song, theme, or chorus most commonly associated with a certain group, body, or cause.

Ballot—A slip of paper or digital screen on which a voter casts a vote in an election. Ballots are most commonly secretly cast to allow the voter privacy and security when voting.

Confederacy—A league or alliance of groups joined together by a treaty.

Desegregation—the reversal of separating individuals or groups based on specific traits, which usually had been allowed by societal or governmental policies.

Segregation—The act of separating individuals or groups within a community based on specific traits, usually by societal or governmental policies.

Integration—The intermixing of people or groups that had been previously subjected to segregation within their community.

Suffrage—The right to vote in political elections.

Symbol—A character that is used to represent or stand for something else. It can also be considered an emblem or sign for something, whether a group, club, material objects, etc.

Redemption—The act of retrieving or regaining something that was once lost in exchange for payment, or clearing a debt.

Resurrection—The act of causing something that had once ended, or had been lost, to return to the existence or be used again.

Activism—a practice that emphasizes direct support or opposition for commonly controversial topics. Stemming from the word active, activism is a thing done and often requires hands-on activity when supporting one’s view.

Transatlantic Slave Trade—The trade of African peoples primarily from Western Africa to the Americas across the Atlantic Ocean from the fifteenth to the nineteenth century for the benefit of European empires.

Legacy—Something that is left behind, or to follow, as a result of an individual’s efforts or events that have already occurred.


SCBHB Hall of Fame

Francis L. Cardozo

Francis L. Cardozo

First African-American Secretary of State for South Carolina and first African-American South Carolina State Treasurer; also principal of Avery Normal Institute

Henry E. Hayne

Henry E. Hayne

First African-American to attend the University of South Carolina; also became Secretary of State

Samuel J. Lee

Samuel J. Lee

First African-American Speaker of the South Carolina House of Representatives

Joseph Rainey

Joseph Rainey

First African-American ever to serve in the United States House of Representatives from Georgetown, South Carolina

Alonzo J. Ransier

Alonzo J. Ransier

First African-American Lieutenant Governor for South Carolina from Charleston, South Carolina

Frances Ann Rollin

Frances Ann Rollin

Frances Ann Rollin—First African-American to write a full-length biography

Robert Smalls

Robert Smalls

Robert Smalls—Civil War Hero, United States Representative, South Carolina State Representative, and South Carolina State Senator from Beaufort, South Carolina

Jonathan Jasper Wright

Jonathan Jasper Wright

Jonathan Jasper Wright—First African-American to serve on a State Supreme Court as an associate justice for the South Carolina Supreme Court

 

 


Suggested Readings

Armstrong, William H. Sounder. . New York: Harper and Row, 1969.

This book shares the story of a black sharecropper, his family, and a dog named Sounder. Fearful that his family will starve the black sharecropper steals a pig and is jailed. The boy has to work within the fields in order to eat. Later on in the book the boy stumbles across a teacher who encourages the boy to attend school to get an education.

Burgan, Michael. The Reconstruction Amendments .  North Mankato, Minnesota: Compass Point Books, 2006.

This book talks about the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments to the Constitution adopted five years after the Civil War. The book discussed how important these amendments were in carrying out the Reconstruction of the Southern states after the war.

Cocca, Lisa Colozza. Reconstruction and the Aftermath of the Civil War . New York: Crabtree Publishing, 2011.

This book highlights the life of Robert Smalls and how he assisted in the navigation of CSS Planter that led many families to freedom. It also talks about his political background and his journey from a slave from Beaufort to a very honorable man.

Cooper, Michael. From slave to Civil War hero: the life and times of Robert Smalls . New York: Penguin Publishing, 1994.

This book highlights the life of Robert Smalls and how he assisted in the navigation of CSS Planter that led many families to freedom. It also talks about his political background and his journey from a slave from Beaufort to a very honorable man.

Wittman, Susan S. Reconstruction: Outcomes of the Civil War . North Mankato: Capstone Press, 2015.

This book closely reflects on the aftermath of the Civil War. It talks about the challenge that the country faced with rebuilding and healing after the Civil War. Not only did the Southern states endure physical damage and needed to be rebuilt but the rights of former slaves also needed to be protected during that time.

Curtis, Christopher Paul. The Mighty Miss Malone . New York: Yearling reprint edition, 2013.

The Mighty Miss Malone is a children’s novel written by Christopher Paul Curtis. The novel was published in 2012 and follows the life of a 12-year-old African American girl named Deza Malone. Deza narrates the story of her life growing up in Gary, Indiana. Deza is a young girl with potential to be successful, however, her family has been struck with severe poverty. The Great Depression causes her father to lose his job and he must travel to find work to provide for his family. Her family is uprooted and she and her mother, and her brother journey to find their father.

Curtis, Christopher Paul. The Watsons go to Birmingham--1963 . New York: Laurel Leaf Reprint Edition, 2000.

The Watsons go to Birmingham is a historical fiction novel written by Christopher Paul Curtis. The novel was first published in the year 1995, but was set in the year 1963. The novel tells the story of an African American family living in the town of Flint, Michigan during the turbulent times of the Civil Rights Movement in the United State of America. The events of the story are centered around Kenny Watson who serves as the lead narrator of the story. The novel addresses the 1963 bombing of 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama, which served as a catalyst for increased activity in the Civil Rights Movement.

Ramsey, Calvin Alexander with Gwen Strauss. Ruth and the Green Book . Minneapolis, Minnesota: Carolrhoda Books, 2010.

Ruth and the Green Book is a fiction book written by Calvin Alexander Ramsey. The story is led by a young African American girl named Ruth, whose family journeys from Chicago to Alabama in the late 1940’s. They discover a book called the green book, a guide that was published to aid African American travelers as they faced prejudice on the roads across the country

Taylor, Mildred D.  Roll of Thunder, Hear my Cry Box Set. New York: Puffin Books, 1996.

Roll of Thunder Hear my Cry is a novel written by Mildred Taylor, published in 1976. The novel is the sequel to her novella Song of the Trees. The novel is about racism in America during the Great Depression, it explores the life of African Americans in southern Mississippi. The narrator, a 9-year-old girl named Cassie Logan, is a young African American child who learns about the way things are in the south. The book follows the experiences of her family and the revelations that she has growing up in southern Mississippi.

Williams-Garcia, Rita. One crazy summer. . New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 2010.

One Crazy Summer is a historical fiction novel written by Rita Williams-Garcia. The book was published in 2010, and is set during the summer of 1968. The novel tells the story of three sisters, Delphine, Vonetta and Fern. The three girls are visiting their grandmother in Oakland, California during this summer. While in California the sisters attend a Black Panther Party breakfast and get a radical education on racism in America. After their mother Cecile was arrested, the sisters attend a rally and perform a poem written by their mother.


Africans In America Web Resource

by The Public Broadcasting System

The Africans in America Web site is a companion to Africans in America, a PBS documentary. The Web site chronicles the history of racial slavery in the United States — from the start of the Atlantic slave trade in the 16th century to the end of the American Civil War in 1865 — and explores the central paradox that is at the heart of the American story: a democracy that declared all men equal but enslaved and oppressed one people to provide independence and prosperity to another. Africans in America examines the economic and intellectual foundations of slavery in America and the global economy that prospered from it. And it reveals how the presence of African people and their struggle for freedom transformed America.

The site is structured into four parts, corresponding to the periods covered by the episodes of the companion television series. For each part, there is a Narrative, which relates the history of the period and provides links to specific entries in the Resource Bank. The Resource Bank is a compilation of over 400 items, comprised of People and Events entries (in-depth biographies and historical notes), Historical Documents (annotated visual materials and texts), and Modern Voices (commentaries excerpted from the original interviews with experts who appear on-camera in the television series). The Teacher’s Guide provides a context for teachers and students to use the Web and the television series in and out of the classroom. There are two lessons included in each part, providing a suggested structure for using several of the primary source materials in the Resource Bank.

SCBHB students are encouraged to use the Resource Bank to explore primary sources and develop research questions as it pertains to the African American diaspora.

 

 


Online Resources


Places of Interest

 

For a complete listing of sites and places of interest regarding the African Amerian Experience in South Carolina, please visit the South Carolina Department of Education’s resource, A Teacher’s Guide to African American Historic Places in South Carolina, 2015.

Avery Research Center for African-American History and Culture 
College of Charleston 
125 Bull St. 
Charleston, South Carolina 29424 
(843) 953-7609
http://avery.cofc.edu


I.P. Stanback Museum and Planetarium
South Carolina State Universtiy 
300 College Street NE
Orangeburg, South Carolina 29117
(803) 536-7174
http://www.scsu.edu/researchoutreach/ipstanbackmuseumandplanetarium.aspx

Mann-Simons Site
1403 Richland Street
Columbia, South Carolina 29201
(803) 252-1770
http://www.historiccolumbia.org/mann-simons-site

Mays House Museum
Dr. Benjamin E. Mays Historical Preservation Site
237 N. Hospital Street
Greenwood, South Carolina 29646
(864) 229-8801
http://www.mayshousemuseum.org/main2.htm

Old Slave Mart Museum
6 Chalmers Street
Charleston, South Carolina 29401
(843) 958-6467
http://www.nps.gov/nr/travel/charleston/osm.html

Penn Center National Historic Landmark District
York W. Bailey Museum
16 Penn Center Circle West
St. Helena Island, South Carolina 29920
(843) 838-2432 
www.penncenter.com

Slave Relics Historical Museum
208 Carn Street
Walterboro, South Carolina 29488
(843) 549-9130
www.slaverelics.org

Southern African American Heritage Center
125 Kershaw Street
Cheraw, South Carolina 29520
(843) 921-9989
http://southernaaheritagecenter.org/

 

Standards: 3-5, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC-3, USHC-8, USG-4
Indicators: 3-5.1, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 4-6.2, 5-1.2, 5-1.4, 8-5.1, 8-5.3, 8-5.6, 8-5.8, 8-6.2, 8-6.4, 8-7.2, USHC-3.4, USHC-3.5,
Standards: 3-4, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, WG 1, USHC 4-8, USG 1-4
Indicators: 3-4.1, 3-4.2, 3-4.3, 3-4.4, 3-4.5, 3-4.6, 4-6.1, 4-6.2, 4-6.3, 4-6.5, 5-1.1, 5-1.2, 5-1.3, 5-1.4,   8-4.2, 8-4.3, 8-4.4,8-4.6, 8-5.1, 8-5.2, 8-5.3, 8-5.4, 8-5.5, 8-5.6, 8-5.7, 8-5.8, WG-1.1, WG-1.2, WG-1.5
Standards: 3-4, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, WG 1, USHC 4-8, USG 1-4
Indicators: 3-4.1, 3-4.2, 3-4.3, 3-4.4, 3-4.5, 3-4.6, 4-6.1, 4-6.2, 4-6.3, 4-6.5, 5-1.1, 5-1.2, 5-1.3, 5-1.4,   8-4.2, 8-4.3, 8-4.4,8-4.6, 8-5.1, 8-5.2, 8-5.3, 8-5.4, 8-5.5, 8-5.6, 8-5.7, 8-5.8, WG-1.1, WG-1.2, WG-1.5
Standards 3-4, 4-6, 5-1, 8-2, 8-4, 8-5, WG 1-8, USHC 4-8, USG 1-4
Indicators: 3-4.1, 3-4.2, 3-4.3, 3-4.4, 3-4.5, 3-4.6, 5-1.2, 5-1.3, 5-1.4, 8-4.6, 8-5.1, 8-5.2, 8-5.3, 8-5.4
Standards: 3-4, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, WG 1, USHC 4-8, USG 1-4
Indicators: 3-4.1, 3-4.2, 3-4.3, 3-4.4, 3-4.5, 3-4.6, 4-6.1, 4-6.2, 4-6.3, 4-6.5, 5-1.1, 5-1.2, 5-1.3, 5-1.4,   8-4.2, 8-4.3, 8-4.4,8-4.6, 8-5.1, 8-5.2, 8-5.3, 8-5.4, 8-5.5, 8-5.6, 8-5.7, 8-5.8, WG-1.1, WG-1.2, WG-1.5
Standards: 3-5, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC-3, USHC-8, USG-4
Indicators: 3-5.1, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 4-6.2, 5-1.2, 5-1.4, 8-5.1, 8-5.3, 8-5.6, 8-5.8, 8-6.2, 8-6.4, 8-7.2, USHC-3.4, USHC-3.5,
Standards: K-4, 2-3, 2-4, 3-1, 3-2, 3-5, 5-3, 5-4, 6-4, 8-1, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC 1, USHC 8, USHC 3, USHC 4, USHC 6, USHC 7
Indicators: 3-5.1, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 3-5.4, 3-5.5, 3-5.6, 5-3.2, 5-4.1, 5-4.2, 5-4.3, 5-5.3, 8-5.1, 8-5.2, 8-5.3, 8-5.4, 8-5.7, 8-5.8, 8-6.2, 8-6.4, 8-7.2, USHC-3.4, USHC-8.1,
Standards: K-4, 2-3, 2-4, 3-1, 3-2, 3-5, 5-3, 5-4, 6-4, 8-1, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC 1, USHC 8, USHC 3, USHC 4, USHC 6, USHC 7
Indicators: 3-5.1, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 3-5.4, 3-5.5, 3-5.6, 5-3.2, 5-4.1, 5-4.2, 5-4.3, 5-5.3, 8-5.1, 8-5.2, 8-5.3, 8-5.4, 8-5.7, 8-5.8, 8-6.2, 8-6.4, 8-7.2, USHC-3.4, USHC-8.1,
Standards: K-4, 2-3, 2-4, 3-1, 3-2, 3-5, 5-3, 5-4, 6-4, 8-1, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC 1, USHC 8, USHC 3, USHC 4, USHC 6, USHC 7
Indicators: 3-5.1, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 3-5.4, 3-5.5, 3-5.6, 5-3.2, 5-4.1, 5-4.2, 5-4.3, 5-5.3, 8-5.1, 8-5.2, 8-5.3, 8-5.4, 8-5.7, 8-5.8, 8-6.2, 8-6.4, 8-7.2, USHC-3.4, USHC-8.1,
Standards: 3-5, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC-3, USHC-8, USG-4
Indicators: 3-5.1, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 4-6.2, 5-1.2, 5-1.4, 8-5.1, 8-5.3, 8-5.6, 8-5.8, 8-6.2, 8-6.4, 8-7.2, USHC-3.4, USHC-3.5,