Resources for Educators on the African American Experience

This page contains an annotated bibliography for educators and parents looking for resources on the African American Experience. As more resources become available, the SCBHB team will update the list.

 

  1. 40 Reconstruction Era Facts and Timeline for Kids (American Historama, U.S. History for Kids) http://www.american-historama.org/1866-1881-reconstruction-era.htm

This website provides viewers with facts about the reconstruction era along with an overall timeline of United States history. The facts about the Reconstruction Era begin start beginning at the peak of the era in 1866 and facts are provided until 1881. This timeline serves as a valuable tool because it highlights and discusses every part of the Reconstruction era. The facts that are displayed on the website are interactive so it allows viewers to grasp a deeper understanding of what events made up the Reconstruction Era. Also, this website includes other events that have happened in history, so that viewers will be able to see how the Reconstruction Era affected other aspects of history along with what caused the period of Reconstruction to begin.

  1. “A Tribute to the Mother Emanuel Church · Lowcountry Digital History Initiative.” Lowcountry Digital History Initiative. May 2016. http://ldhi.library.cofc.edu/exhibits/show/mother-emanuel-tribute.

The College of Charleston Lowcountry Digital History Initiative aims to tell the history of South Carolina through digital exhibits. Each exhibit provides context on a critical aspect of South Carolina history and provides readers with a comprehensive list of source material on the subject.

  1. A Visual Timeline of Reconstruction: 1863-1877 (College of Education, University of Houston) http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/exhibits/reconstruction/timeline.html

This website provides a visual timeline of the years of Reconstruction. The timeline is interactive and viewers are able to click on images to navigate to another part of the online exhibit. By providing this interactive feature viewers are now able to learn more about a certain document/person’s significance to the Reconstruction Era. This source provides viewers with very thorough information regarding the actual dates when events occurred.

  1. “African American Records: Freedmen’s Bureau.” National Archives and Records Administration. National Archives and Records Administration, n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2015 https://www.archives.gov/research/african-americans/freedmens-bureau

This source provides the overall background of the Freedmen’s Bureau. This website discusses who were affected after the Civil War and why the Freedmen’s Bureau was adopted as a means of relief for those affected. The programs provided by the Bureau is also discussed within this website, along with the records of the Freedmen’s Bureau between the years 1865-1872. Also, this website lists the states were records of the Bureau can be found and accessed. This source is important to the topic of the Freedmen’s Bureau because it provides the who, what, and why of history. This website also allows more room for research. By using this website census, marriage, and medical records can be found and accessed.

  1. "American Civil War: Civil War Reconstruction." Ducksters Educational Site. Accessed January 10, 2018. http://www.ducksters.com/history/civil_war/reconstruction.php.

This source provides an overview of just how damaged the South was after the Civil War. The Southern states were so damaged that it required rebuilding which is was coined the term Reconstruction. This website gives viewers a better understanding of who played a part in the Reconstruction era and it also gives the option to take a short quiz to test the one’s knowledge on the Reconstruction era.

  1. Aptheker, Herbert. American Negro Slave Revolts. New York: International. Publ., 1978.

Dr. Herbert Aptheker examines slave revolts in the United States. Aptheker primarily examines the Nat Turner rebellion and the Denmark Vesey plot and argues that African American slaves were largely rebellious and active. This groundbreaking study obliterated the preconceived notions that slaves were docile in America.

  1. Armstrong, William H. Sounder. NY: Harper and Row, 1969.

This book shares the story of a black sharecropper, his family, and a dog named Sounder. Fearful that his family will starve the black sharecropper steals a pig and is jailed. The boy has to work within the fields in order to eat. Later on in the book the boy stumbles across a teacher who encourages the boy to attend school to get an education.

  1. Moore Jr Winfred, and Orville Vernon. Burton. Toward the Meeting of the Waters: Currents in the Civil Rights Movement of South Carolina During the Twentieth Century . University of South Carolina Press, 2011.

Toward the Meeting of the Waters is a collection of historical essays that examines the Civil Rights Movement in South Carolina. Each essay provides essential context on the evolution of activism in South Carolina

  1. Baker, R. Scott. Paradoxes of desegregation: African American struggles for educational equity in Charleston, South Carolina: 1926-1972. Columbia: Univ. of South Carolina Press, 2006.

In his 2006 monograph, Scott Baker contends that there is little known about public education in the south. Outside of the Brown V. Board of Education decision, very little is taught about the process and system of education in the south, especially in South Carolina. Baker argues that white supremacy was fundamentally intertwined with public school and that policymakers, especially in Charleston, resisted equal education opportunities on the basis of race.

  1. Bass, Jack, and Jack Nelson. The Orangeburg Massacre . 2nd ed. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 2003.

Jack Bass and Jack Nelson retell the story of the Orangeburg massacre. The Orangeburg massacre encourages readers to reanalysis the Civil Rights movement in South Carolina and argues that the Orangeburg Massacre is an under-discussed yet fundamentally crucial moment in the large Civil Rights movement.

  1. Berlin, Ira. Slaves Without Masters: The Free Negro in the Antebellum South . New York: The New Press, 2007.

In his 2007 monograph, Dr. Ira Berlin examines the life of free African Americans before the American civil war. Dr. Berlin presents a carefully organized and researched monograph describing the social, educational, and economic life of freed African Americans and argues that even “Free” men and women were subjected to a system of societal “chains” that limited their ability to interact within society.

  1. Burgan, Michael. The Reconstruction Amendments . Minneapolis, MN: Compass Point Books, 2006.

This book talks about the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments to the Constitution adopted five years after the Civil War. The book discussed how important these amendments were in carrying out the Reconstruction of the Southern states after the war.

  1. Charron, Katherine Mellen. Freedoms teacher: the life of Septima Clark. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009.

Freedoms Teacher: The Life of Septima Clark is a biography of the life one of Americas most important, and influential civil rights leaders. Septima Clark was a school teacher in South Carolina and worked to create quality education while working as an activist in her community. Katherine Charron’s book provides incredible details and facts surrounding the social and political influence of Clark’s life.

  1. Cocca, Lisa Colozza  Reconstruction and the Aftermath of the Civil War New York: Crabtree Publishing, 2011
  2. Cooper, Michael L. From slave to Civil War hero: the life and times of Robert Smalls . New York: Penguin Publishing, 1994.

This book highlights the life of Robert Smalls and how he assisted in the navigation of CSS Planter that led many families to freedom. It also talks about his political background and his journey from a slave from Beaufort to a very honorable man.

  1. Curtis, Christopher Paul. The Mighty Miss Malone . n.p.: New York : Wendy Lamb Books, c2012., 2012. Library Catalog, EBSCOhost

The Mighty Miss Malone is a children’s novel written by Christopher Paul Curtis. The novel was published in 2012 and follows the life of a 12-year-old African American girl named Deza Malone. Deza narrates the story of her life growing up in Gary, Indiana. Deza is a young girl with potential to be successful, however, her family has been struck with severe poverty. The Great Depression causes her father to lose his job and he must travel to find work to provide for his family. Her family is uprooted and she and her mother, and her brother journey to find their father.

  1. Curtis, Christopher Paul. The Watsons go to Birmingham--1963 . n.p.: New York : Delacorte Press, 1995., 1995. Library Catalog, EBSCOhost

The Watsons go to Birmingham is a historical fiction novel written by Christopher Paul Curtis. The novel was first published in the year 1995, but was set in the year 1963. The novel tells the story of an African American family living in the town of Flint, Michigan during the turbulent times of the Civil Rights Movement in the United State of America. The events of the story are centered around Kenny Watson who serves as the lead narrator of the story. The novel addresses the 1963 bombing of 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama, which served as a catalyst for increased activity in the Civil Rights Movement.

  1. Drago, Edmund L., and W. Marvin Dulaney. Charlestons Avery Center: from education and civil rights to preserve the African American experience. Charleston, SC: History Press, 2006.

Dr. Edmund Drago and Marvin Dulaney tell the history of Charleston’s Avery center. Initially, Avery was a school for inner-city African Americans population. Drago’s work places the Avery Normal Institute at the center of African American education in Charleston. In addition to educating the community’s African American population, Avery trained teachers and served as a central hub for quality education. Drago takes the Avery Institute and situates it at the center of activism and African American in Charleston.

  1. Douglass, Frederick, and William Lloyd Garrison. 1846. Narrative of the life of Frederick Douglass, an American slave. Wortley, near Leeds: Printed by Joseph Barker.
  2. Du Bois W.E.B, Black Reconstruction in America 1860-1880. New York: Free Press, 1998.

This source serves as a study that analyzes the role that Black Americans played in the period after the Civil War. During the period of Reconstruction slaves were freed and there was a profound attempt to reconstruct and rebuild the United States after the damages caused by the Civil War.

  1. Easter, O. V. "Septima Poinsette Clark: Unsung heroine of the civil rights movement." Freedom road: Adult education of African Americans (1996) : 109-122.

This source studies the life of American educator and Civil Rights Activist, Septima Poinsette Clark. Clark was born in Charleston, South Carolina in May 1898. Clark was born into a time where Charleston was strictly segregated and deeply divided by class. Clark was responsible for the development of literacy and citizenships workshops that drove voter registration in African Americans during the Civil Rights Movement. Clark was known for her belief the “knowledge could empower marginalized groups in ways that formal legal equality couldn’t.” Clark was a led activist who educated African Americans with the hope to uplift their communities.

  1. "Establishing the Avery Normal Institute · Avery: The Spirit That Would Not Die, 1865-2015 · Lowcountry Digital History Initiative.” Lowcountry Digital History Initiative. Accessed January 10, 2018. http://ldhi.library.cofc.edu/exhibits/show/avery/establishingavery.

 

This source focuses on the establishment of the Avery Normal Institute. It provides some background information about Francis Lewis Cardozo who served as a principal at the Institute from 1865-1868. Francis Cardozo was the son of a free woman of color and a Jewish business man. He studied abroad in Great Britain for theological studies.

Estes, Steve.  Charleston in Black and White: Race and Power in the South After the Civil Rights Movement. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 2015

In his 2015 monograph, historian Steve Estes examines Charleston, South Carolina after the Civil Rights Movement. Estes relies heavily on oral histories to consider “the complex roles played not only by race but also by politics, labor relations, criminal justice, education, religion, tourism, economics, and the military in shaping a modern southern city.” Estes argues that although the state has made considerable strides since the 1960’s, Charleston has remained reluctant to confront the violent racist history of the area while perpetuating a disingenuous “Gone with the Wind” image.

  1. Evans, Freddi Williams. A Bus of our Own Park Ridge, Illinois: Albert Whitman & CO., 2001
  2. “Frances Anne Rollin (1845-1901). Rollin, Frances Anne (1845-1901) | The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed. Accessed January 10, 2018. http://www.blackpast.org/aah/rollin-frances-anne-1845-1901.

Frances Anne Rollin became the first African American to write a full-length biography during the nineteenth century and she was also the author of the earliest known diary written by a southern woman. This source dives into Rollin’s life in Charleston and her work as a teacher for the Freedmen’s Bureau.

  1. Franklin, John Hope, and Loren Schweninger. Runaway Slaves: Rebels on the Plantation. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

John Hope Franklin and Loren Schweninger build on Herbert Apthekers argument that slaves in America rejected their captivity and organized open rebellions and escapes as a way to regain personal and communal agency. The main argument from Runaway Slaves is that refusal to participate in a system of bondage and forced labor accumulated in the rebellious and activist nature of the slave community. Although the act of resistance did little to damper the institution as a whole, it provided enslaved humans the ability reject their captivity.

  1. Frazier, Herb, Bernard Edward Powers, and Marjory Wentworth. We are Charleston: tragedy and triumph at Mother Emanuel . Nashville, TN: W Publishing Group, an imprint of Thomas Nelson, 2016.

Herb Frazier, Bernard Powers, and Marjory Wentworth examine the aftermath of the Mother Emanuel shooting. This compelling book explores the communities’ reaction to the tragedy and presents an image of Charleston that became semi-unified as a way to understand and cope with loss.

 

  1. The Freedmen—American Memory Timeline.The FreedmenAmerican Memory TimelineClassroom Presentation | Teacher Resources. Library of Congress, n.d. Web. 10 Apr.2015. http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/civilwar/freedmen/

Within this source, the Library of Congress provides an overview of the Freedmen with the assistance that the federal government provided in order to form the Freedmen’s Bureau. Also on this website there are links to external sources that can further the research and education of the Freedmen’s Bureau history. Many of the documents that are found on this website can provide information from the educational aspect of the freedman’s bureau. For example, there is a link to the report of the Board of Education for Freemen of 1863 and also there is a link that discusses the education that the Freedmen received.

  1. Gates, Henry Louis, and Nellie Y. McKay. 2004. The Norton anthology of African American literature. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.
  2. Green, Victor H. "The Negro Motorist Green-Book." New York: Victor H. Green and (1936).

The Negro Motorist Green-Book was a guidebook for African American roadtripper during the Jim Crow Era. Commonly known as the green book, this book aided African American travel throughout specific parts of the United States.  Though pervasive inequalities limited black access to automobiles, the African American middle class bought cars as they could. Many African Americans drove to avoid segregation in public transportation. This book enabled African Americans to find lodging, businesses and gas stations that would serve them along the way.

  1. Greenberg, David A Tugging String: A Novel about Growing up during the Civil Rights Era New York: Penguin, 2008
  2. Haley, Alex. The Oral History Review 1 (1973): 1-25.

Haley, a genealogist, and author of roots discusses his journey in discovering his family’s history. This source provides a detailed account to the experience Haley had as he decided to study his family’s genealogy. He discusses his struggles while studying genealogy and how other African Americans face similar struggles. He explains the importance of knowing your family history. This source provides a personal example of the importance of genealogy and the effects it has on growth in the African American community.

  1. “Hayne, Henry E.” South Carolina Encyclopedia . Accessed January 10, 2018. http://www.scencyclopedia.org/sce/entries/hayne-henry-e/.

Henry E. Hayne was a member of the state Senate from 1868-1872 and he represented Marion County. He served as the South Carolina’s secretary of state from 1872-1877. Hayne also was the first black student to attend the University of South Carolina. This source provides an in-depth history of the life and background of Hayne.

  1. Hopkins, George. “ Charleston hospital workers' strike .” South Carolina Encyclopedia. April 15, 2016. http://www.scencyclopedia.org/sce/entries/charleston-hospital-workers-strike/.

Dr. George Hopkins from the College of Charleston provided an important online description of the Charleston Hospital workers strike.

  1. Jenkins, Wilbert L. Seizing the New Day: African Americans in post-Civil War Charleston . Bloomington, IN Indiana University Press, 2003.

Seizing the New Day offers a unique and unrepresented perspective of African American life in post-Civil War Charleston. Wilbert Jenkins highlights the success of southern African Americans in seizing social and cultural power. While the amount of power gained in a post-war world is subjective, Jenkins is able to organize his work nicely and describe the rise of a new Charleston African American identity. Jenkins ascribes to the argument that African Americans largely freed themselves and thus presented an interesting historiographical argument.

  1. Johnson, Kimberly P., and Vanessa J. Thompson. No fear for freedom: the story of the Friendship 9 . Place of publication not identified: Frown-Free Publications, 2013.

Kimberly Johnson’s book No Fear for Freedom aims to places the nine civil rights activists involved in the Friendship 9 in the minds of mainstream civil rights education. Johnson’s work is very accessible to children and does a great job at preserving the memory of prominent civil rights leaders in the minds of future generations.

  1. “Justice Jonathan Jasper Wright.” South Carolina African American History Calendar . Accessed January 10, 2018. http://scafricanamerican.com/2018/honorees/justice-jonathan-jasper-wright/.

This source talks about the life of Jonathan Jasper Wright who was the first African American to achieve position in the aspect of the legal field. More specifically her achieved positions within the South Carolina Supreme Court. He served as a teacher to newly freed slaves and he also gave lectures on legal matters as well as providing legal advice.

  1. Keeper of the Gate: Philip Simmons Ironwork in Charleston, South Carolina .” The Lowcountry Digital History http://ldhi.library.cofc.edu/exhibits/show/philip_simmons.

Keeper of the Gate provides a detailed history about the works of master blacksmith Philip Simmons (1919-2009), a native of Charleston, South Carolina. The website provides an online exhibition of his works which both serve as primary and secondary sources. Simmons’s story serves as one of many that reflect the influence of African Americans in skilled trades in the City of Charleston. Simmons produced hundreds of decorative gates and pieces of iron work throughout the city and surrounding areas. He also trained local blacksmiths that would go on to continue his legacy.

  1. Kly, Yussuf Naim. The Invisible War: The African American Anti-Slavery Resistance From the Stono Rebellion through the Seminole Wars . Atlanta, GA: Clarity Press, 2006.

The Invisible War continues the argument that American slaves rejected docility and actively participated in revolts and escapes. This book challenges the misconceptions of American slavery and aims to depict African agency through warfare and rebellion. Dr. Kly’s book builds on the historiography of American slavery and resistance before the civil war.

  1. Lau, Peter F. Democracy Rising: South Carolina and the fight for Black equality since 1865. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2006.

Peter Lau examines the evolution of the Civil Rights Movement in South Carolina from reconstruction the early 20th century. Lau is successful in portraying south Carolinas movement as instrumental to the development of the state through the 20th century as well as depicting South Carolina as a critical battleground for the national Civil Rights Movement. Lau argues that the states racist background helped shape society today. Overall Lau asserts that South Carolina has largely been overlooked in the historiography of the Civil Rights movement and encourages readers and historians to reanalyze the importance of the states activist culture as it relates to the nation at large.

  1. Lemke, Donald B. 2006. The Brave Escape of Ellen and William Craft . n.p.: Mankato, Minn. : Capstone Press, c2006., 2006. Library Catalog, EBSCOhost

The Brave Escape of Ellen and William Craft is the tale of how two slaves fled their masters by passing as a white man travelling with his servant. This couple was able hide in plain sight and escape their masters. Ellen, who was 1/4th African American, masked her race, gender and social status for a four-day trip. Her husband William was passed off as her servant. They made it to Philadelphia and were given assistance by the underground abolitionist network. They eventually moved to Boston, with hopes of returning to Georgia. After slave hunters came searching for them, they were forced to flee again, this time to England. They returned to the United States and established a school in Georgia.

  1. McCurdy, Devon. “ Forty Acres and a Mule." Forty Acres and a Mule | The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed. Accessed January 10, 2018. http://www.blackpast.org/aah/forty-acres-and-mule.

This source goes into depth about the phrase of “forty acres and a mule.” At the end of the Civil War the Federal government made a promised to redistribute land, however, they failed and as a result many African Americans suffered from economic hardships. Within this source the adoption of the Freedmen’s Bureau, the Special Field Order No. 15, and the Southern Homestead Act are also mentioned and explained.

  1. Morrison, Toni Remember: The Journey to School Integration Boston: Houghton Mifflin Books, 2004
  2. Nelson, Kadir  Heart and Soul: The Story of American and African Americans Blazer and Bray 2011

Kadir Nelson examines major events in American history ranging from the eighteenth century to the mid twentieth century. Kadir uses a unique narrative to bring new life and thus engage a wider range of readers. The book retells important historical movements from the perspective of a child hearing stories from her father. Kadir offers young readers an opportunity to explore the important and powerful African American experience.

  1. Pilgrim, David. "What Was Jim Crow?." Ferris State University (2000): 2007.

Jim Crow Laws were state and local laws that were established in the southernmost part of the United States. These laws were enacted by white democrats in the early 19th century after Reconstruction. These laws enforced racial segregation in the south, they mandated racial segregation in all public facilities in the former Confederate States of America. This was implemented under the status of “separate but equal.” Facilities for African Americans were consistently inferior when compared to those of their white counterparts. These laws were mainly in the south but many northern blacks were marginalized by enforced private covenants and job discrimination.

  1. Pinkney, Andrea Sit-In: How Four Friends stood up by Sitting down New York: Little Brown Books for Young Readers, 2010
  2. Powers, Bernard Edward. Black Charlestonians: A Social History, 1822-1885. Fayetteville: The University of Arkansas press, 1994.

Dr. Bernard Powers from the College of Charleston examines the social history of African Americans in Charleston during the nineteenth century. Powers revisionist approach to African American life offers an interesting perspective on the social and economic growth in large, southern, urban, black populations.

  1. Purcell, James H. 1806. MS, Holloway Family Scrapbook Avery Research Center for African American History and Culture. http://lcdl.library.cofc.edu/content/holloway-family-collection

This image is a manumission that was found within Holloway Family Scrapbook. Within the scrapbook that was compiled by James Holloway, there are legal documents, personal and business correspondence, receipts, and photographs pertaining to the Holloway family. Also included in the scrapbook was a manumission for Jehu Jones.

  1. "Rainey, Joseph Hayne." US House of Representatives: History, Art & Archives. Accessed January 10, 2018. http://history.house.gov/People/Listing/R/RAINEY,-Joseph-Hayne-(R000016)/.

This source provides the background information about Joseph Rainey. He served as the first African American in the US House of Representatives. He also served as the first African American to preside over the House and he was the longest serving African American during the Reconstruction period.

  1. Ramsey, Calvin A. 2010. Ruth and the Green Book . n.p.: Minneapolis, MN : Carolrhoda Books, c2010., 2010. Library Catalog, EBSCOhost

Ruth and the Green Book is a fiction book written by Calvin Alexander Ramsey. The story is led by a young African American girl named Ruth, whose family journeys from Chicago to Alabama in the late 1940’s. They discover a book called the green book, a guide that was published to aid African American travelers as they faced prejudice on the roads across the country.

  1. "Ransier, Alonzo Jacob." US House of Representatives: History, Art & Archives. Accessed January 10, 2018. http://history.house.gov/People/Detail/20155.

Alonzo Jacob Ransier served as South Carolina’s first black lieutenant governor. Based on this source Ransier is described as a man who fought corruption about because of this he won the election to the 43rd Congress. He is also described as a man of great courage. Because Ransier was free prior to the Civil War he was granted financial security and he was able to establish himself within politics.

  1. "The Reconstruction Era and the Fragility of Democracy." Facing History and Ourselves. Accessed January 10, 2018. https://www.facinghistory.org/reconstruction-era.

This archive provides viewers with lessons, videos, and primary sources to teach about the Reconstruction Era. The resources included interviews with scholars of the Reconstruction era who provide insight on the past as well as discuss the cause of Reconstruction.

  1. "Reconstruction in South Carolina: 1861-1876 · After Slavery: Race, Labor, and Politics in the Post-Emancipation Carolinas · Lowcountry Digital History Initiative.” Lowcountry Digital History Initiative. Accessed January 10, 2018. http://ldhi.library.cofc.edu/exhibits/show/after_slavery/interactive_timelines_as/reconstruction_sc.\

This source also features an interactive timeline of the time of the Civil War until Reconstruction, however, this particular website provides resources for educators to utilize. By clicking the link, educators are brought to a guide on how to incorporate information from this source into their curriculum. This feature allows educators to effectively bring the material of Reconstruction and the Freedman’s Bureau into the classroom. Access to the source also grants access to a blog that is an international research collaboration. Also, within this website, events following the Civil War are broken up into units that have themes. Some of the topics broken down within these units are freedom, mobilization of freed slaves, labor, black soldiers, emancipation, and equality. By breaking these themes up into units provides a deeper understanding of the smaller pieces to the puzzle of Reconstruction. Also featured on this website are interactive maps, recommended readings on the Reconstruction era, and digital resources.

  1. Robertson, David. Denmark Vesey: The Buried History of Americas Largest Slave Rebellion and the Man who led it. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2000.

David Robertson is one of the view authors to examine the life of Denmark Vesey, a literate and wealthy ex-slave in Charleston, South Carolina. Historians believe Vesey was responsible for a plot to rebel and execute white southerners in Charleston. Robertson’s monograph offers a comprehensive examination of Vesey and attempts to create a factual retelling of his life. This is no easy feat due to the limited primary sources and the rejection of Vesey in the South. While Vesey has recently seen a surge in popularity, this insightful book encourages readers to understand the African American struggle and act of rebellion. Robertson’s book is not perfect however builds on the historiography of slavery in the south by examining a prolific leader within the African American community.

 

  1. Samford, Patricia. "The Archaeology of African-American Slavery and Material Culture." The William and Mary Quarterly 53, no. 1 (1996): 87-114.

This article studies the history of African American material culture. There are several items that were specifically used by African Americans, specifically African Americans in the south.  These artifacts have been preserved for years. They have been studied to better understand the day to day lives of many African American slaves.

  1. Schwalm, Leslie Ann. A Hard Fight for We: Women’s Transition from Slavery to Freedom in South Carolina . Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997.

Dr. Leslie Schwalm uses her monograph, A Hard Fight for We, to place women in the historiography of rebellion, resistance, and rebuilding. Schwalm argues that women during the nineteenth century are often overlooked. Women served as one of the most significant conduits for the transfer of culture and identity through generations. Additionally, Schwalm argues that women radically embraced freedom and rejected white intervention in the creation of life without slavery.

  1. Sellers, Cleveland, The River of No Return: The Autobiography of a Black Militant and the Life and Death of SNCC . New York: William Marrow, 2018.

The River of No Return serves as one of the most striking and vital autobiographies of an African American activist during the 1960s. Cleveland Sellers offers first accounts of important events, notably the Orangeburg massacre while providing a rank and file perspective of one the nation’s most turbulent decades.

  1. Shuler, Jack. Blood and bone: truth and reconciliation in a Southern town. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2012.

Jack Shuler, a native of Orangeburg South Carolina, examines the massacre that happened in 1968 that resulted in the death of three young African American activists. Shuler’s work primarily examines how the massacre has been preserved in memory and how groups shape the narrative surrounding the event. Rather than tell the history of the actual event, Shuler explores how people understand and remember the tragedy. In addition to his primary goal, Shuler places the Massacre in the forefront of the larger Civil Rights Movements and argues that the violence and recollection of race in America mirror the event in Orangeburg in 1968.

  1. Shuler, Jack. Calling out liberty: the Stono Slave Rebellion and the Universal Struggle for Human Rights . Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2009.

English professor Jack Shuler examines the Stono Slave Rebellion and argues that African American revolts serve as a source of early human rights activism. Shuler uses the Stono Rebellion as a case study for human rights discourse in early America.

 

  1. Shuler, Jack. "The Orangeburg Massacre · Lowcountry Digital History Initiative." Lowcountry Digital History Initiative. May 2013. http://ldhi.library.cofc.edu/exhibits/show/orangeburg-massacre.

The College of Charleston Lowcountry Digital History Initiative aims to tell the history of South Carolina through digital exhibits. Each exhibit provides context on a critical aspect of South Carolina history and provides readers with a comprehensive list of source material on the subject.

  1. Taylor, Kerry. "The Charleston Hospital Workers Movement, 1968-1969 · Lowcountry Digital History Initiative.” Lowcountry Digital History Initiative. November 2013. http://ldhi.library.cofc.edu/exhibits/show/charleston_hospital_workers_mo.

The College of Charleston Lowcountry Digital History Initiative aims to tell the history of South Carolina through digital exhibits. Each exhibit provides context on a critical aspect of South Carolina history and provides readers with a comprehensive list of source material on the subject.

  1. Taylor, Mildred D. Roll of Thunder, Hear my Cry . Penguin, 1997.

Roll of Thunder Hear my Cry is a novel written by Mildred Taylor, published in 1976. The novel is the sequel to her novella Song of the Trees. The novel is about racism in America during the Great Depression, it explores the life of African Americans in southern Mississippi. The narrator, a 9-year-old girl named Cassie Logan, is a young African American child who learns about the way things are in the south. The book follows the experiences of her family and the revelations that she has growing up in southern Mississippi.

  1. "The Thrilling Tale of How Robert Smalls Seized a Confederate Ship and Sailed it to Freedom." Smithsonian.com. June 13, 2017. Accessed January 10, 2018. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/thrilling-tale-how-robert-smalls-heroically-sailed-stolen-confederate-ship-freedom-180963689/

This source talks about the story of Robert Smalls voyage to freedom. Afraid that his family would be sold, Smalls seized the CSS Planter and naviaged the boat and the families aboard to their freedom. Asisde from being a hero, Smalls also was the co-founder of the South Carolina Republican party and he was also elected into the US House of Representatives as well as the South Carolina Senate.

  1. Trotter, Joe William, ed. The Great Migration in historical perspective: New dimensions of race, class, and gender . Vol. 669. Indiana University Press, 1991.

The Great Migration was the movement of 6 million African Americans out of the rural south to the Urban Northeast, Midwest and Western United States. The Great Migration occurred during 1916 and 1970. By the end of the migration 53% percent of the African American population lived in the south, compared to the 90% that lived in the south in the year 1910. By 1970 more than 80% of African Americans lived in cities. This migration was one of the largest movements in United States history.

  1. “The Ultimate “Learn to Scrapbook” Guide for Beginners." Accessed January 10, 2018. https://scrapbookingcoach.com/the-ultimate-learn-to-scrapbook-guide-for-beginners/.

This source provides viewers with steps that will assist in the learning of scrapbooking. The steps are thorough and they are broken down to the point that anyone should be able to understand and learn how to scrapbook.

  1. Wait, Lea. Seaward Born. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2004.

This book is a story that is set during slavery, it expresses a concern that many of people during the Reconstruction era had. The book addresses the idea that how would a population that was accustomed to enslavement, adjust to freedom when slavery is all that they ever knew.

  1. Watson, Steven. The Harlem Renaissance: Hub of African-American Culture, 1920-1930 . New York: Pantheon Books, 1995.

The Harlem Renaissance was a development of the Harlem neighborhood in New york City. As blacks fled to the northeast during the great migration, cities like Harlem began to thrive. Harlem was driven by the development of black culture. This period is considered the golden age in African American culture. From this era came developments in black literature, music, performing and studio arts.

  1. Waud, Alfred. The Freedmen’s Bureau. Library of Congress. http://www.harpweek.com/09Cartoon/RelatedCartoon.asp?Month=July&Date=25

Alfred Waud’s image, “The Freedmen’s Bureau depicts a man who is representing the Freedman’s Bureau and he is standing between an armed group of white and Black men. This image showed a man who was “conscience” and commanding the two groups to be peaceful. This illustration gives an idea of how divided things were at the ending the Civil War and the Freedmen’s Bureau not only provided programs as relief, but they also provided peace that promoted unity.

  1. Waugh, Dwana. "Introduction · Charleston's Cigar Factory Strike, 1945-1946 · Lowcountry Digital History Initiative.” Lowcountry Digital History Initiative. May 2014. http://ldhi.library.cofc.edu/exhibits/show/cigar_factory/introduction.

The College of Charleston Lowcountry Digital History Initiative aims to tell the history of South Carolina through digital exhibits. Each exhibit provides context on a critical aspect of South Carolina history and provides readers with a comprehensive list of source material on the subject.

  1. White-Perry, Giselle. "In Freedom's Shadow." National Archives and Records Administration. 2010. Accessed January 10, 2018. https://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2010/fall/greaves.html.

This source directly focuses on the reconstruction legacy of Renty Franklin Greaves of Beaufort, South Carolina. Like many other people within the town of Mitchville during 1863, Greaves had the opportunity to serve in various local government offices. This source also notes that during his time he also served as a solider. Greaves was considered a leader that remained in the shadows of history during Reconstruction and beyond.

  1. Williams, David. I Freed Myself: African American Self-Emancipation in the Civil War Era. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014.

David Williams monograph I Freed Myself is an interesting and necessary read for anyone interested in the emancipation of African Americans. Williams uses a plethora of primary research material to argue that African Americans liberated themselves from the chains of slavery. Williams situates his work nicely in the historiographical debate surrounding emancipation and offers a compelling argument for how and why African American were the ones responsible for their freedom through overt and covert actions. While a significant work, readers should familiarize themselves with the debate regarding emancipation.

  1. Williams-Garcia, Rita. 2010. One crazy summer. n.p.: New York : Amistad, c2010., 2010. Library Catalog, EBSCOhost

One Crazy Summer is a historical fiction novel written by Rita Williams-Garcia. The book was published in 2010, and is set during the summer of 1968. The novel tells the story of three sisters, Delphine, Vonetta and Fern. The three girls are visiting their grandmother in Oakland, California during this summer. While in California the sisters attend a Black Panther Party breakfast and get a radical education on racism in America. After their mother Cecile was arrested, the sisters attend a rally and perform a poem written by their mother.

  1. Wittman, Susan S. Reconstruction: Outcomes of the Civil War . North Mankato, MN: Capstone Press, a Capstone imprint, 2015.

This book closely reflects on the aftermath of the Civil War. It talks about the challenge that the country faced with rebuilding and healing after the Civil War. Not only did the Southern states endure physical damage and needed to be rebuilt but the rights of former slaves also needed to be protected during that time.

  1. Wood, Peter H. Black Majority: Negroes in Colonial South Carolina from 1670 through the Stono Rebellion . New York: W.W. Norton, 1996.

Peter woods groundbreaking monograph serves as one of the most comprehensive and essential examinations of American race relations and colonial development. Primarily, Wood argues that slave work played a significant role in the creation of successful colonies, specifically South Carolina. Additionally, Wood claims that slave owners specifically targeted people who had the physical traits to work combined with a background in agricultural cultivation. Wood explains that due to the large quantity of slaves being brought into southern colonies, African tradition and culture was able to grow and evolve in a new world. Black Majority is a well-researched work that should be a must-read for anyone interested in the history of South Carolina, African American history, and the preservation of ideas and cultures through traumatic experiences such as slavery.

  1. Woodtor, Dee Parmer. "African-American genealogy." American Visions 8, no. 6 (1993): 20-24.

This source provides an interactive guide to African American Genealogy. A manual is provided for beginners, and they are given the steps to help trace their roots. This article discusses the role that the internet plays in helping African Americans trace their family story. This guide contains genealogical websites that are commonly used by African Americans. It also advises African Americans on the ways they can trace their history without using the internet.

  1. Woodtor, Dee Parmer. Finding a place called home: a guide to African-American genealogy and historical identity . Random House Reference &, 1999.

Finding a Place Called Home is a comprehensive guide to helping African Americans discover their roots. After the Great Migration in the 1940’s many African Americans fled the south and lost track of their familial roots. The book shows step by step how to trace back a family’s history. This book teaches how to interview family members, research past consensus reports and find courthouse records. After obtaining these records the manual teaches how to fully interpret and use these records to discover roots. This source explains the benefits from discovering your family’s history, and helps people find ways to continue to keep track of their family genealogy.

 

Standards: 3-4, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, WG 1, USHC 4-8, USG 1-4
Indicators: 3-4.1, 3-4.2, 3-4.3, 3-4.4, 3-4.5, 3-4.6, 4-6.1, 4-6.2, 4-6.3, 4-6.5, 5-1.1, 5-1.2, 5-1.3, 5-1.4,   8-4.2, 8-4.3, 8-4.4,8-4.6, 8-5.1, 8-5.2, 8-5.3, 8-5.4, 8-5.5, 8-5.6, 8-5.7, 8-5.8, WG-1.1, WG-1.2, WG-1.5
Standards: 3-4, 4-6, 5-1, 5-3, 5-4, 5-5, 5-6, USHC-8, USG-4
Indicators: 3-4.1, 3-4.6, 4-6.5, 5-1.4, 5-3.3, USHC-8.1,
Standards: 3-4, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, WG 1, USHC 4-8, USG 1-4
Indicators: 3-4.1, 3-4.2, 3-4.3, 3-4.4, 3-4.5, 3-4.6, 4-6.1, 4-6.2, 4-6.3, 4-6.5, 5-1.1, 5-1.2, 5-1.3, 5-1.4,   8-4.2, 8-4.3, 8-4.4,8-4.6, 8-5.1, 8-5.2, 8-5.3, 8-5.4, 8-5.5, 8-5.6, 8-5.7, 8-5.8, WG-1.1, WG-1.2, WG-1.5
Standards: 3-4, 4-6, 5-1, 8-2, 8-4, 8-5, WG 1-8, USHC 4-8, USG 1-4
Indicators: 3-4.1, 3-4.3, 3-4.5, 3-4.6, 4-6.2, 4-6.5, 5-1.1, 5-1.2, 5-1.3, 5-1.4,8-4.4, 8-4.6,
Standards: 3-4, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, WG 1, USHC 4-8, USG 1-4
Indicators: 3-4.1, 3-4.2, 3-4.3, 3-4.4, 3-4.5, 3-4.6, 4-6.1, 4-6.2, 4-6.3, 4-6.5, 5-1.1, 5-1.2, 5-1.3, 5-1.4,   8-4.2, 8-4.3, 8-4.4,8-4.6, 8-5.1, 8-5.2, 8-5.3, 8-5.4, 8-5.5, 8-5.6, 8-5.7, 8-5.8, WG-1.1, WG-1.2, WG-1.5
Standards 3-4, 4-6, 5-1, 8-2, 8-4, 8-5, WG 1-8, USHC 4-8, USG 1-4
Indicators: 3-4.1, 3-4.2, 3-4.3, 3-4.4, 3-4.5, 3-4.6, 5-1.2, 5-1.3, 5-1.4, 8-4.6, 8-5.1, 8-5.2, 8-5.3, 8-5.4
Standards: 3-5, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC-3, USHC-8, USG-4
Indicators: 3-5.1, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 4-6.2, 5-1.2, 5-1.4, 8-5.1, 8-5.3, 8-5.6, 8-5.8, 8-6.2, 8-6.4, 8-7.2, USHC-3.4, USHC-3.5,
Standards: 3-5, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC-3, USHC-8, USG-4
Indicators: 3-5.1, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 4-6.2, 5-1.2, 5-1.4, 8-5.1, 8-5.3, 8-5.6, 8-5.8, 8-6.2, 8-6.4, 8-7.2, USHC-3.4, USHC-3.5,
Standards: 3-5, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC-3, USHC-8, USG-4
Indicators: 3-5.1, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 4-6.2, 5-1.2, 5-1.4, 8-5.1, 8-5.3, 8-5.6, 8-5.8, 8-6.2, 8-6.4, 8-7.2, USHC-3.4, USHC-3.5,
Standards: 3-5, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC-3, USHC-8, USG-4
Indicators: 3-5.1, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 4-6.2, 5-1.2, 5-1.4, 8-5.1, 8-5.3, 8-5.6, 8-5.8, 8-6.2, 8-6.4, 8-7.2, USHC-3.4, USHC-3.5,
Standards: K-4, 3-4, 4-6, 8-5, WG 1, WG-4, WG-5, USHC 4-8, USG 1-4
Indicators: K-4.1, K-4.3, K-4.4, 3-4.1, 3-4.2, 3-4.5, 3-4.6, 4-6.1, 8-5.1, 8-5.2, 8-5.3, 8-5.4, 8-5.5, 8-5.6, 8-5.7, 8-5.8, WG-1.1, WG-1.2, WG-1.5, WG-4.1, WG-4.2, WG-4.3, WG-5.1
Standards: 3-4, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, WG 1, USHC 4-8, USG 1-4
Indicators: 3-4.1, 3-4.2, 3-4.3, 3-4.4, 3-4.5, 3-4.6, 4-6.1, 4-6.2, 4-6.3, 4-6.5, 5-1.1, 5-1.2, 5-1.3, 5-1.4,   8-4.2, 8-4.3, 8-4.4,8-4.6, 8-5.1, 8-5.2, 8-5.3, 8-5.4, 8-5.5, 8-5.6, 8-5.7, 8-5.8, WG-1.1, WG-1.2, WG-1.5
Standards: 3-5, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC-3, USHC-8, USG-4
Indicators: 5-1.2, 5-3.2, 5-5.3, 8-5.3, 8-5.4, 8-5.8, 8-6.2, 8-7.2, 8-7.3, USHC-3.5, USHC-8.1,
Standards: 3-4, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, WG 1, USHC 4-8, USG 1-4
Indicators: 3-4.1, 3-4.2, 3-4.3, 3-4.4, 3-4.5, 3-4.6, 4-6.1, 4-6.2, 4-6.3, 4-6.5, 5-1.1, 5-1.2, 5-1.3, 5-1.4,   8-4.2, 8-4.3, 8-4.4,8-4.6, 8-5.1, 8-5.2, 8-5.3, 8-5.4, 8-5.5, 8-5.6, 8-5.7, 8-5.8, WG-1.1, WG-1.2, WG-1.5
Standards 3-4, 4-6, 5-1, 8-2, 8-4, 8-5, WG 1-8, USHC 4-8, USG 1-4
Indicators: 3-4.1, 3-4.2, 3-4.3, 3-4.4, 3-4.5, 3-4.6, 5-1.2, 5-1.3, 5-1.4, 8-4.6, 8-5.1, 8-5.2, 8-5.3, 8-5.4
Standards: 3-5, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC-3, USHC-8, USG-4
Indicators: 3-5.1, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 4-6.2, 5-1.2, 5-1.4, 8-5.1, 8-5.3, 8-5.6, 8-5.8, 8-6.2, 8-6.4, 8-7.2, USHC-3.4, USHC-3.5,
Standards: K-4, 2-3, 2-4, 3-1, 3-2, 3-5, 5-3, 5-4, 6-4, 8-1, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC 1, USHC 8, USHC 3, USHC 4, USHC 6, USHC 7
Indicators: 3-5.1, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 3-5.4, 3-5.5, 3-5.6, 5-3.2, 5-4.1, 5-4.2, 5-4.3, 5-5.3, 8-5.1, 8-5.2, 8-5.3, 8-5.4, 8-5.7, 8-5.8, 8-6.2, 8-6.4, 8-7.2, USHC-3.4, USHC-8.1,
Standards: 3-5, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC-3, USHC-8, USG-4
Indicators: 3-5.1, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 4-6.2, 5-1.2, 5-1.4, 8-5.1, 8-5.3, 8-5.6, 8-5.8, 8-6.2, 8-6.4, 8-7.2, USHC-3.4, USHC-3.5,
Standards: 3-4, 4-6, 5-1, 8-2, 8-4, 8-5, WG 1-8, USHC 4-8, USG 1-4
Indicators: 3-4.1, 3-4.3, 3-4.5, 3-4.6, 4-6.2, 4-6.5, 5-1.1, 5-1.2, 5-1.3, 5-1.4,8-4.4, 8-4.6,
Standards: 3-4, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, WG 1, USHC 4-8, USG 1-4
Indicators: 3-4.1, 3-4.2, 3-4.3, 3-4.4, 3-4.5, 3-4.6, 4-6.1, 4-6.2, 4-6.3, 4-6.5, 5-1.1, 5-1.2, 5-1.3, 5-1.4,   8-4.2, 8-4.3, 8-4.4,8-4.6, 8-5.1, 8-5.2, 8-5.3, 8-5.4, 8-5.5, 8-5.6, 8-5.7, 8-5.8, WG-1.1, WG-1.2, WG-1.5
Standards: 3-5, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC-3, USHC-8, USG-4
Indicators: 3-5.1, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 4-6.2, 5-1.2, 5-1.4, 8-5.1, 8-5.3, 8-5.6, 8-5.8, 8-6.2, 8-6.4, 8-7.2, USHC-3.4, USHC-3.5,
Standards: 3-5, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC-3, USHC-8, USG-4
Indicators: 3-5.1, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 4-6.2, 5-1.2, 5-1.4, 8-5.1, 8-5.3, 8-5.6, 8-5.8, 8-6.2, 8-6.4, 8-7.2, USHC-3.4, USHC-3.5,
Standards: 3-5, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC-3, USHC-8, USG-4
Indicators: 3-5.1, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 4-6.2, 5-1.2, 5-1.4, 8-5.1, 8-5.3, 8-5.6, 8-5.8, 8-6.2, 8-6.4, 8-7.2, USHC-3.4, USHC-3.5,
Standards: K-4, 2-3, 2-4, 3-1, 3-2, 3-5, 5-3, 5-4, 6-4, 8-1, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC 1, USHC 8, USHC 3, USHC 4, USHC 6, USHC 7
Indicators: 3-5.1, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 3-5.4, 3-5.5, 3-5.6, 5-3.2, 5-4.1, 5-4.2, 5-4.3, 5-5.3, 8-5.1, 8-5.2, 8-5.3, 8-5.4, 8-5.7, 8-5.8, 8-6.2, 8-6.4, 8-7.2, USHC-3.4, USHC-8.1,
Standards: 3-4, 4-6, 5-1, 8-2, 8-4, 8-5, WG 1-8, USHC 4-8, USG 1-4
Indicators: 3-4.1, 3-4.3, 3-4.5, 3-4.6, 4-6.2, 4-6.5, 5-1.1, 5-1.2, 5-1.3, 5-1.4,8-4.4, 8-4.6,
Standards: 3-4, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, WG 1, USHC 4-8, USG 1-4
Indicators: 3-4.1, 3-4.2, 3-4.3, 3-4.4, 3-4.5, 3-4.6, 4-6.1, 4-6.2, 4-6.3, 4-6.5, 5-1.1, 5-1.2, 5-1.3, 5-1.4,   8-4.2, 8-4.3, 8-4.4,8-4.6, 8-5.1, 8-5.2, 8-5.3, 8-5.4, 8-5.5, 8-5.6, 8-5.7, 8-5.8, WG-1.1, WG-1.2, WG-1.5
Standards: 3-4, 4-6, 5-1, 5-3, 5-4, 5-5, 5-6, USHC-8, USG-4
Indicators: 3-4.1, 3-4.6, 4-6.5, 5-1.4, 5-3.3, USHC-8.1,
Standards: 3-4, 4-6, 5-1, 8-2, 8-4, 8-5, WG 1-8, USHC 4-8, USG 1-4
Indicators: 3-4.1, 3-4.3, 3-4.5, 3-4.6, 4-6.2, 4-6.5, 5-1.1, 5-1.2, 5-1.3, 5-1.4,8-4.4, 8-4.6,
Standards: K-4, 2-3, 2-4, 3-1, 3-2, 3-5, 5-3, 5-4, 6-4, 8-1, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC 1, USHC 8, USHC 3, USHC 4, USHC 6, USHC 7
Indicators: K-4.1, K-4.3, 2-3.1, 2-4.1, 2-4.2, 2-4.3, 2-4.4, 3-1.1, 3-1.2, 3-1.3, 3-2.5, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 3-5.4, 3-5.5, 3-5.6, 5.3-2, 6-4.1, 6-4.2, 8-1.4, USHC-6.2,
Standards: K-4, 2-3, 2-4, 3-1, 3-2, 3-5, 5-3, 5-4, 6-4, 8-1, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC 1, USHC 8, USHC 3, USHC 4, USHC 6, USHC 7
Indicators: 3-5.1, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 3-5.4, 3-5.5, 3-5.6, 5-3.2, 5-4.1, 5-4.2, 5-4.3, 5-5.3, 8-5.1, 8-5.2, 8-5.3, 8-5.4, 8-5.7, 8-5.8, 8-6.2, 8-6.4, 8-7.2, USHC-3.4, USHC-8.1,
Standards: 3-5, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC-3, USHC-8, USG-4
Indicators: 3-5.1, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 4-6.2, 5-1.2, 5-1.4, 8-5.1, 8-5.3, 8-5.6, 8-5.8, 8-6.2, 8-6.4, 8-7.2, USHC-3.4, USHC-3.5,
Standards: K-4, 2-3, 2-4, 3-1, 3-2, 3-5, 5-3, 5-4, 6-4, 8-1, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC 1, USHC 8, USHC 3, USHC 4, USHC 6, USHC 7
Indicators: K-4.1, K-4.3, 2-3.1, 2-4.1, 2-4.2, 2-4.3, 2-4.4, 3-1.1, 3-1.2, 3-1.3, 3-2.5, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 3-5.4, 3-5.5, 3-5.6, 5.3-2, 6-4.1, 6-4.2, 8-1.4, USHC-6.2,
Standards: K-4, 2-3, 2-4, 3-1, 3-2, 3-5, 5-3, 5-4, 6-4, 8-1, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC 1, USHC 8, USHC 3, USHC 4, USHC 6, USHC 7
Indicators: K-4.1, K-4.3, 2-3.1, 2-4.1, 2-4.2, 2-4.3, 2-4.4, 3-1.1, 3-1.2, 3-1.3, 3-2.5, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 3-5.4, 3-5.5, 3-5.6, 5.3-2, 6-4.1, 6-4.2, 8-1.4, USHC-6.2,
Standards: 3-5, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC-3, USHC-8, USG-4
Indicators: 3-5.1, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 4-6.2, 5-1.2, 5-1.4, 8-5.1, 8-5.3, 8-5.6, 8-5.8, 8-6.2, 8-6.4, 8-7.2, USHC-3.4, USHC-3.5,
Standards: 3-4, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, WG 1, USHC 4-8, USG 1-4
Indicators: 3-4.1, 3-4.2, 3-4.3, 3-4.4, 3-4.5, 3-4.6, 4-6.1, 4-6.2, 4-6.3, 4-6.5, 5-1.1, 5-1.2, 5-1.3, 5-1.4,   8-4.2, 8-4.3, 8-4.4,8-4.6, 8-5.1, 8-5.2, 8-5.3, 8-5.4, 8-5.5, 8-5.6, 8-5.7, 8-5.8, WG-1.1, WG-1.2, WG-1.5
Standards: 3-5, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC-3, USHC-8, USG-4
Indicators: 3-5.1, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 4-6.2, 5-1.2, 5-1.4, 8-5.1, 8-5.3, 8-5.6, 8-5.8, 8-6.2, 8-6.4, 8-7.2, USHC-3.4, USHC-3.5,
Standards: K-4, 2-3, 2-4, 3-1, 3-2, 3-5, 5-3, 5-4, 6-4, 8-1, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC 1, USHC 8, USHC 3, USHC 4, USHC 6, USHC 7
Indicators: K-4.1, K-4.3, 2-3.1, 2-4.1, 2-4.2, 2-4.3, 2-4.4, 3-1.1, 3-1.2, 3-1.3, 3-2.5, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 3-5.4, 3-5.5, 3-5.6, 5.3-2, 6-4.1, 6-4.2, 8-1.4, USHC-6.2,
Standards: K-4, 2-3, 2-4, 3-1, 3-2, 3-5, 5-3, 5-4, 6-4, 8-1, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC 1, USHC 8, USHC 3, USHC 4, USHC 6, USHC 7
Indicators: 3-5.1, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 3-5.4, 3-5.5, 3-5.6, 5-3.2, 5-4.1, 5-4.2, 5-4.3, 5-5.3, 8-5.1, 8-5.2, 8-5.3, 8-5.4, 8-5.7, 8-5.8, 8-6.2, 8-6.4, 8-7.2, USHC-3.4, USHC-8.1,
Standards: 3-4, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, WG 1, USHC 4-8, USG 1-4
Indicators: 3-4.1, 3-4.2, 3-4.3, 3-4.4, 3-4.5, 3-4.6, 4-6.1, 4-6.2, 4-6.3, 4-6.5, 5-1.1, 5-1.2, 5-1.3, 5-1.4,   8-4.2, 8-4.3, 8-4.4,8-4.6, 8-5.1, 8-5.2, 8-5.3, 8-5.4, 8-5.5, 8-5.6, 8-5.7, 8-5.8, WG-1.1, WG-1.2, WG-1.5
Standards: K-4, 2-3, 2-4, 3-1, 3-2, 3-5, 5-3, 5-4, 6-4, 8-1, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC 1, USHC 8, USHC 3, USHC 4, USHC 6, USHC 7
Indicators: 3-5.1, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 3-5.4, 3-5.5, 3-5.6, 5-3.2, 5-4.1, 5-4.2, 5-4.3, 5-5.3, 8-5.1, 8-5.2, 8-5.3, 8-5.4, 8-5.7, 8-5.8, 8-6.2, 8-6.4, 8-7.2, USHC-3.4, USHC-8.1,
Standards 3-4, 4-6, 5-1, 8-2, 8-4, 8-5, WG 1-8, USHC 4-8, USG 1-4
Indicators: 3-4.1, 3-4.2, 3-4.3, 3-4.4, 3-4.5, 3-4.6, 5-1.2, 5-1.3, 5-1.4, 8-4.6, 8-5.1, 8-5.2, 8-5.3, 8-5.4
Standards: 3-4, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, WG 1, USHC 4-8, USG 1-4
Indicators: 3-4.1, 3-4.2, 3-4.3, 3-4.4, 3-4.5, 3-4.6, 4-6.1, 4-6.2, 4-6.3, 4-6.5, 5-1.1, 5-1.2, 5-1.3, 5-1.4,   8-4.2, 8-4.3, 8-4.4,8-4.6, 8-5.1, 8-5.2, 8-5.3, 8-5.4, 8-5.5, 8-5.6, 8-5.7, 8-5.8, WG-1.1, WG-1.2, WG-1.5
Standards: 3-5, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC-3, USHC-8, USG-4
Indicators: 3-5.1, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 4-6.2, 5-1.2, 5-1.4, 8-5.1, 8-5.3, 8-5.6, 8-5.8, 8-6.2, 8-6.4, 8-7.2, USHC-3.4, USHC-3.5,
Standards: K-4, 2-3, 2-4, 3-1, 3-2, 3-5, 5-3, 5-4, 6-4, 8-1, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC 1, USHC 8, USHC 3, USHC 4, USHC 6, USHC 7
Indicators: 3-5.1, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 3-5.4, 3-5.5, 3-5.6, 5-3.2, 5-4.1, 5-4.2, 5-4.3, 5-5.3, 8-5.1, 8-5.2, 8-5.3, 8-5.4, 8-5.7, 8-5.8, 8-6.2, 8-6.4, 8-7.2, USHC-3.4, USHC-8.1,

 

Standards: 3-5, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC-3, USHC-8, USG-4
Indicators: 3-5.1, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 4-6.2, 5-1.2, 5-1.4, 8-5.1, 8-5.3, 8-5.6, 8-5.8, 8-6.2, 8-6.4, 8-7.2, USHC-3.4, USHC-3.5,
Standards: 3-5, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC-3, USHC-8, USG-4
Indicators: 3-5.1, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 4-6.2, 5-1.2, 5-1.4, 8-5.1, 8-5.3, 8-5.6, 8-5.8, 8-6.2, 8-6.4, 8-7.2, USHC-3.4, USHC-3.5,
Standards: 3-4, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, WG 1, USHC 4-8, USG 1-4
Indicators: 3-4.1, 3-4.2, 3-4.3, 3-4.4, 3-4.5, 3-4.6, 4-6.1, 4-6.2, 4-6.3, 4-6.5, 5-1.1, 5-1.2, 5-1.3, 5-1.4,   8-4.2, 8-4.3, 8-4.4,8-4.6, 8-5.1, 8-5.2, 8-5.3, 8-5.4, 8-5.5, 8-5.6, 8-5.7, 8-5.8, WG-1.1, WG-1.2, WG-1.5
Standards: K-4, 2-3, 2-4, 3-1, 3-2, 3-5, 5-3, 5-4, 6-4, 8-1, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC 1, USHC 8, USHC 3, USHC 4, USHC 6, USHC 7
Indicators: K-4.1, K-4.3, 2-3.1, 2-4.1, 2-4.2, 2-4.3, 2-4.4, 3-1.1, 3-1.2, 3-1.3, 3-2.5, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 3-5.4, 3-5.5, 3-5.6, 5.3-2, 6-4.1, 6-4.2, 8-1.4, USHC-6.2,
Standards 3-4, 4-6, 5-1, 8-2, 8-4, 8-5, WG 1-8, USHC 4-8, USG 1-4
Indicators: 3-4.1, 3-4.2, 3-4.3, 3-4.4, 3-4.5, 3-4.6, 5-1.2, 5-1.3, 5-1.4, 8-4.6, 8-5.1, 8-5.2, 8-5.3, 8-5.4
Standards: K-4, 2-3, 2-4, 3-1, 3-2, 3-5, 5-3, 5-4, 6-4, 8-1, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC 1, USHC 8, USHC 3, USHC 4, USHC 6, USHC 7
Indicators: 3-5.1, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 3-5.4, 3-5.5, 3-5.6, 5-3.2, 5-4.1, 5-4.2, 5-4.3, 5-5.3, 8-5.1, 8-5.2, 8-5.3, 8-5.4, 8-5.7, 8-5.8, 8-6.2, 8-6.4, 8-7.2, USHC-3.4, USHC-8.1,
Standards: K-4, 2-3, 2-4, 3-1, 3-2, 3-5, 5-3, 5-4, 6-4, 8-1, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC 1, USHC 8, USHC 3, USHC 4, USHC 6, USHC 7
Indicators: K-4.1, K-4.3, 2-3.1, 2-4.1, 2-4.2, 2-4.3, 2-4.4, 3-1.1, 3-1.2, 3-1.3, 3-2.5, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 3-5.4, 3-5.5, 3-5.6, 5.3-2, 6-4.1, 6-4.2, 8-1.4, USHC-6.2,
Standards: 3-4, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, WG 1, USHC 4-8, USG 1-4
Indicators: 3-4.1, 3-4.2, 3-4.3, 3-4.4, 3-4.5, 3-4.6, 4-6.1, 4-6.2, 4-6.3, 4-6.5, 5-1.1, 5-1.2, 5-1.3, 5-1.4,   8-4.2, 8-4.3, 8-4.4,8-4.6, 8-5.1, 8-5.2, 8-5.3, 8-5.4, 8-5.5, 8-5.6, 8-5.7, 8-5.8, WG-1.1, WG-1.2, WG-1.5
Standards: 3-4, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, WG 1, USHC 4-8, USG 1-4
Indicators: 3-4.1, 3-4.2, 3-4.3, 3-4.4, 3-4.5, 3-4.6, 4-6.1, 4-6.2, 4-6.3, 4-6.5, 5-1.1, 5-1.2, 5-1.3, 5-1.4,   8-4.2, 8-4.3, 8-4.4,8-4.6, 8-5.1, 8-5.2, 8-5.3, 8-5.4, 8-5.5, 8-5.6, 8-5.7, 8-5.8, WG-1.1, WG-1.2, WG-1.5
Standards 3-4, 4-6, 5-1, 8-2, 8-4, 8-5, WG 1-8, USHC 4-8, USG 1-4
Indicators: 3-4.1, 3-4.2, 3-4.3, 3-4.4, 3-4.5, 3-4.6, 5-1.2, 5-1.3, 5-1.4, 8-4.6, 8-5.1, 8-5.2, 8-5.3, 8-5.4
Standards: K-4, 2-3, 2-4, 3-1, 3-2, 3-5, 5-3, 5-4, 6-4, 8-1, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC 1, USHC 8, USHC 3, USHC 4, USHC 6, USHC 7
Indicators: K-4.1, K-4.3, 2-3.1, 2-4.1, 2-4.2, 2-4.3, 2-4.4, 3-1.1, 3-1.2, 3-1.3, 3-2.5, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 3-5.4, 3-5.5, 3-5.6, 5.3-2, 6-4.1, 6-4.2, 8-1.4, USHC-6.2,
Standards: K-4, 2-3, 2-4, 3-1, 3-2, 3-5, 5-3, 5-4, 6-4, 8-1, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC 1, USHC 8, USHC 3, USHC 4, USHC 6, USHC 7
Indicators: 3-5.1, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 3-5.4, 3-5.5, 3-5.6, 5-3.2, 5-4.1, 5-4.2, 5-4.3, 5-5.3, 8-5.1, 8-5.2, 8-5.3, 8-5.4, 8-5.7, 8-5.8, 8-6.2, 8-6.4, 8-7.2, USHC-3.4, USHC-8.1,
Standards: 3-5, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC-3, USHC-8, USG-4
Indicators: 3-5.1, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 4-6.2, 5-1.2, 5-1.4, 8-5.1, 8-5.3, 8-5.6, 8-5.8, 8-6.2, 8-6.4, 8-7.2, USHC-3.4, USHC-3.5,
Standards: 3-5, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC-3, USHC-8, USG-4
Indicators: 3-5.1, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 4-6.2, 5-1.2, 5-1.4, 8-5.1, 8-5.3, 8-5.6, 8-5.8, 8-6.2, 8-6.4, 8-7.2, USHC-3.4, USHC-3.5,
Standards: 3-4, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, WG 1, USHC 4-8, USG 1-4
Indicators: 3-4.1, 3-4.2, 3-4.3, 3-4.4, 3-4.5, 3-4.6, 4-6.1, 4-6.2, 4-6.3, 4-6.5, 5-1.1, 5-1.2, 5-1.3, 5-1.4,   8-4.2, 8-4.3, 8-4.4,8-4.6, 8-5.1, 8-5.2, 8-5.3, 8-5.4, 8-5.5, 8-5.6, 8-5.7, 8-5.8, WG-1.1, WG-1.2, WG-1.5
Standards: 3-5, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC-3, USHC-8, USG-4
Indicators: 3-5.1, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 4-6.2, 5-1.2, 5-1.4, 8-5.1, 8-5.3, 8-5.6, 8-5.8, 8-6.2, 8-6.4, 8-7.2, USHC-3.4, USHC-3.5,
Standards: 3-5, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC-3, USHC-8, USG-4
Indicators: 3-5.1, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 4-6.2, 5-1.2, 5-1.4, 8-5.1, 8-5.3, 8-5.6, 8-5.8, 8-6.2, 8-6.4, 8-7.2, USHC-3.4, USHC-3.5,
Standards: K-4, 2-3, 2-4, 3-1, 3-2, 3-5, 5-3, 5-4, 6-4, 8-1, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC 1, USHC 8, USHC 3, USHC 4, USHC 6, USHC 7
Indicators: 3-5.1, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 3-5.4, 3-5.5, 3-5.6, 5-3.2, 5-4.1, 5-4.2, 5-4.3, 5-5.3, 8-5.1, 8-5.2, 8-5.3, 8-5.4, 8-5.7, 8-5.8, 8-6.2, 8-6.4, 8-7.2, USHC-3.4, USHC-8.1,
Standards 3-4, 4-6, 5-1, 8-2, 8-4, 8-5, WG 1-8, USHC 4-8, USG 1-4
Indicators: 3-4.1, 3-4.2, 3-4.3, 3-4.4, 3-4.5, 3-4.6, 5-1.2, 5-1.3, 5-1.4, 8-4.6, 8-5.1, 8-5.2, 8-5.3, 8-5.4
Standards: K-4, 2-3, 2-4, 3-1, 3-2, 3-5, 5-3, 5-4, 6-4, 8-1, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC 1, USHC 8, USHC 3, USHC 4, USHC 6, USHC 7
Indicators: 3-5.1, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 3-5.4, 3-5.5, 3-5.6, 5-3.2, 5-4.1, 5-4.2, 5-4.3, 5-5.3, 8-5.1, 8-5.2, 8-5.3, 8-5.4, 8-5.7, 8-5.8, 8-6.2, 8-6.4, 8-7.2, USHC-3.4, USHC-8.1,
Standards: K-4, 2-3, 2-4, 3-1, 3-2, 3-5, 5-3, 5-4, 6-4, 8-1, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC 1, USHC 8, USHC 3, USHC 4, USHC 6, USHC 7
Indicators: K-4.1, K-4.3, 2-3.1, 2-4.1, 2-4.2, 2-4.3, 2-4.4, 3-1.1, 3-1.2, 3-1.3, 3-2.5, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 3-5.4, 3-5.5, 3-5.6, 5.3-2, 6-4.1, 6-4.2, 8-1.4, USHC-6.2,
Standards: 3-4, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, WG 1, USHC 4-8, USG 1-4
Indicators: 3-4.1, 3-4.2, 3-4.3, 3-4.4, 3-4.5, 3-4.6, 4-6.1, 4-6.2, 4-6.3, 4-6.5, 5-1.1, 5-1.2, 5-1.3, 5-1.4,   8-4.2, 8-4.3, 8-4.4,8-4.6, 8-5.1, 8-5.2, 8-5.3, 8-5.4, 8-5.5, 8-5.6, 8-5.7, 8-5.8, WG-1.1, WG-1.2, WG-1.5
Standards: K-4, 2-3, 2-4, 3-1, 3-2, 3-5, 5-3, 5-4, 6-4, 8-1, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC 1, USHC 8, USHC 3, USHC 4, USHC 6, USHC 7
Indicators: K-4.1, K-4.3, 2-3.1, 2-4.1, 2-4.2, 2-4.3, 2-4.4, 3-1.1, 3-1.2, 3-1.3, 3-2.5, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 3-5.4, 3-5.5, 3-5.6, 5.3-2, 6-4.1, 6-4.2, 8-1.4, USHC-6.2,
Standards: 3-4, 4-6, 5-1, 8-2, 8-4, 8-5, WG 1-8, USHC 4-8, USG 1-4
Indicators: 3-4.1, 3-4.3, 3-4.5, 3-4.6, 4-6.2, 4-6.5, 5-1.1, 5-1.2, 5-1.3, 5-1.4,8-4.4, 8-4.6,
Standards: 3-5, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC-3, USHC-8, USG-4
Indicators: 3-5.1, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 4-6.2, 5-1.2, 5-1.4, 8-5.1, 8-5.3, 8-5.6, 8-5.8, 8-6.2, 8-6.4, 8-7.2, USHC-3.4, USHC-3.5,
Standards: 3-4, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, WG 1, USHC 4-8, USG 1-4
Indicators: 3-4.1, 3-4.2, 3-4.3, 3-4.4, 3-4.5, 3-4.6, 4-6.1, 4-6.2, 4-6.3, 4-6.5, 5-1.1, 5-1.2, 5-1.3, 5-1.4,   8-4.2, 8-4.3, 8-4.4,8-4.6, 8-5.1, 8-5.2, 8-5.3, 8-5.4, 8-5.5, 8-5.6, 8-5.7, 8-5.8, WG-1.1, WG-1.2, WG-1.5
Standards: 3-4, 4-6, 5-1, 8-2, 8-4, 8-5, WG 1-8, USHC 4-8, USG 1-4
Indicators: 3-4.1, 3-4.3, 3-4.5, 3-4.6, 4-6.2, 4-6.5, 5-1.1, 5-1.2, 5-1.3, 5-1.4,8-4.4, 8-4.6,
Standards: 3-5, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC-3, USHC-8, USG-4
Indicators: 3-5.1, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 4-6.2, 5-1.2, 5-1.4, 8-5.1, 8-5.3, 8-5.6, 8-5.8, 8-6.2, 8-6.4, 8-7.2, USHC-3.4, USHC-3.5,
Standards: 3-4, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, WG 1, USHC 4-8, USG 1-4
Indicators: 3-4.1, 3-4.2, 3-4.3, 3-4.4, 3-4.5, 3-4.6, 4-6.1, 4-6.2, 4-6.3, 4-6.5, 5-1.1, 5-1.2, 5-1.3, 5-1.4,   8-4.2, 8-4.3, 8-4.4,8-4.6, 8-5.1, 8-5.2, 8-5.3, 8-5.4, 8-5.5, 8-5.6, 8-5.7, 8-5.8, WG-1.1, WG-1.2, WG-1.5
Standards: 3-4, 4-6, 5-1, 8-4, 8-5, WG 1, USHC 4-8, USG 1-4
Indicators: 3-4.1, 3-4.2, 3-4.3, 3-4.4, 3-4.5, 3-4.6, 4-6.1, 4-6.2, 4-6.3, 4-6.5, 5-1.1, 5-1.2, 5-1.3, 5-1.4,   8-4.2, 8-4.3, 8-4.4,8-4.6, 8-5.1, 8-5.2, 8-5.3, 8-5.4, 8-5.5, 8-5.6, 8-5.7, 8-5.8, WG-1.1, WG-1.2, WG-1.5
Standards: K-4, 2-3, 2-4, 3-1, 3-2, 3-5, 5-3, 5-4, 6-4, 8-1, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC 1, USHC 8, USHC 3, USHC 4, USHC 6, USHC 7
Indicators: K-4.1, K-4.3, 2-3.1, 2-4.1, 2-4.2, 2-4.3, 2-4.4, 3-1.1, 3-1.2, 3-1.3, 3-2.5, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 3-5.4, 3-5.5, 3-5.6, 5.3-2, 6-4.1, 6-4.2, 8-1.4, USHC-6.2,
Standards: K-4, 2-3, 2-4, 3-1, 3-2, 3-5, 5-3, 5-4, 6-4, 8-1, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7, USHC 1, USHC 8, USHC 3, USHC 4, USHC 6, USHC 7
Indicators: K-4.1, K-4.3, 2-3.1, 2-4.1, 2-4.2, 2-4.3, 2-4.4, 3-1.1, 3-1.2, 3-1.3, 3-2.5, 3-5.2, 3-5.3, 3-5.4, 3-5.5, 3-5.6, 5.3-2, 6-4.1, 6-4.2, 8-1.4, USHC-6.2,